Today pearl farming is getting very popular in traditional and innovative farmers in India. Mostly farmers from young age or highly educated young entrepreneurs are showing interest in this business. India is biggest importer of pearls. Around 1-3 billion dollars of pearls imported every year. It shows the demand of pearls in Indian market. But lot of questions arises in the young minds and farmers regarding this business. Here we will try to answer all the queries.
Who can take Pearl Farming as business
Anyone can take it as business, who wants to earn some profit and has passion to do something new and lead the way for others. There is not as such eligibility criteria to start this business. Even you can do it with job, other business or farming. But yes it needs consistent care and regular monitoring. Pearl farming needs very less manpower and investment. It is one of the best aquaculture business. In long run you can add other aquaculture business to it, like fish farming.
Is there enough market to sell Pearls
As we said earlier that India is the biggest importer of pearls. Millions of dollars spend yearly to meet up the demand of Indian home market. Even you can export the pearls if the quality of your production is good. Culturing oysters and selling them is also a very good business. Every Pearl farmer needs pearl producing mussels. Two types of pearls produced in India.
Freshwater cultured round pearl and Freshwater cultured designer pearls. Where round pearl has its own traditional market on the other hand designer pearl is making its place in Indian market very fast. Designer pearls can be of many designs, for example: heart shape, different Hindu deities, in the form of Christ cross or flower and in many other designs. Because of this vast variety in designs and second is they are naturally cultured real pearls, their demand is very high. There is no method of grading is available to decide the cost of designer pearl, so, if your quality of designer pearl is good then you can charge anything for it.
Points to Consider before starting Pearl Farming
1 Most important point to remember before starting pearl farming is, it requires lot of patience and commitment. It’s a very slow process and requires lot of hard work.
2 Training is important. It requires skillful training and passion. You must take training from a certified institute or from a experienced Pearl farmer. You will learn all the basics in training but most of the things you will learn when you do it by yourself. Practice will make you perfect. 2-3 days of training covers all the basics.
3 Choose Safe and secure place for your project. The place should be free from all forms of threats, like predators, floods and thefts. Location of farm should be like that, where regular supply of oysters maintained.
4 And most important is, make a proper business plan for pearl farming project. You should cover all the aspects, from culturing of pearls to selling of them in market. If you plan every step of pearl farming carefully, nothing could beat you in this business.
Calculation of Cost and Profit of Pearl Farming (all calculation in Indian Rupees)
Area of land Required for 5000 mussels farm – 1/2 to 1 Bigah(measurement of bigah in per sq mt. varies from state to state). If you take land on lease then please add the amount in total.
Culture Period – For round Pearl ( 18-24 months)
For designer Pearl (12-14 months)
Note : Here we will take average cost and profit of round and designer pearls. A single mussel produces two designer pearls and if the target is round pearl then one mussel produces one round pearl. But i would suggest, for all the first timers, go for designer pearl farming because it takes less time and double in quantity than round pearl.
Cost of digging Pond of area 20X15X6 (in ft) for 1000 mussels = 7000 to 10000 (one time investment)
Cost of Mussels per piece = 7-10 ( 7000 to 10000 for 1000)
Cost of rope and net for 1000 Mussels = 3500 (one time investment)
Pearl farming kit = 500-1000 (one time investment)
Cost of Nucleus for 1000 Mussels if you purchase(2 Nucleus per mussel for designer pearl) = 2000
Cost of Nucleus for 1000 Mussels if you make yourself = 2000
Cost of Die for Designer Pearls 25pc X 250 = 6250(one time investment)
Cost of Mussels feeding = it is very nominal
Cost of harvesting of pearls if you do yourself = 0
Cost of harvesting of pearls if you higher expert for 1000 Mussels = 3000-5000
Miscellaneous = 5000
Total cost project of 5000 Mussel = 2,04,750 approx.
Income from Pearls assuming the mortality rate is 40% (it is maximum, otherwise regular practice reduces the mortality rate)
Mussels left after 40% mortality = 3000
If all the pearls designers, then total pearls collected from 3000 mussels = 5000
Total gross income from 5000 designer pearls ranges from 150 – 400 per pearl, as per their quality. If we take average income from each pearl is 250 then 250X5000 = 12,50,000
Net Profit from Pearl Farming = 12,50,000 – 2,04,750 = 10,45,250
So, as we can see, if you are focused, hardworking and passionate then you can very easily earn around one lakh per year or even more.
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